30th
JUN

Persian philosophs and sciences

Posted by Mohammad Forgani under Rooti:


It’s sure that they were Muslim but no Arab.

770-840 A.D. Mohanmmad Khwarizmi
864-930 A.D. Mohammad ibn Zakariya AL-RAZI
870-950 A.D. Farabi
900-971 A.D. born in Khorasan Mohammad ibn al-Hasan Khazin
940-997 A.D. born in Nishapur Abul Wafa Mohammad AL-BUZJANI
940-1020 A.D. born in Tus Ferdosi Faren til den modern Persisk
953-1029 A.D. born in Afschana Al-Karaji IBN SINA
1048-1131 A.D. born in Nishapur Omar Khayyam
1058-1128 A.D. born in Khorasan
1099- 1177 A.D
Hamid Ghazali
A.Saiid-e-A.Kheyr
1201-1274 A.D. born in Tus Nasir al-Din Tusi
1207 A.D. born in Balkh, Persia Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi
1194 A.D. born in Shiraz Sa’di
1320-1389 A.D. born in Shiraz Shams-od-Din Mohammad Hafez
1380-1429 A.D. in Kashan, Iran Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashi
Abu Bekr ibn Mohammad ibn al-Husayn

Iranians have always been interested in philosophic matters.
In the pre-Islamic period, philosophy was closely linked to theology, as indeed it also was in the early Islamic period.

Gradually, however, phi!osophy developed into a separate science, and most of the great Muslim philosophers were Iranians, although since they wrote mainly in Arabic, the universal language of Islam, they are often known in the West as Arab philosophers.
Iran adopted the Indian decimal system and numerals, transmitting them to the West as the “Arabic” numerals used today. Omar Khayyam wrote the most important medieval treatise on algebra, and systematized a very accurate calendar, which is the basis of the official Iranian calendar today.
Alchemy, the forerunner of chemistry, was widely studied, and Iranian alchemists discovered many important substances, including alcohol, and developed some of the apparatus used by modern chemists.
The philosophic tradition was kept alive by Sadr-od-Din Shirazi, who in Safavid times synthesized the various threads of Islamic philosophy into a comprehensive new system, and Sabzevan, a nineteenth-century philosopher who continued and revived the tradition.
Although scientific activity declined after the fifteenth century, the present century has seen a revival. Iranian scientists, at home and abroad, they are again making valuable contributions to mankind’s store of knowledge.

Muhammad Khwarizmi (770-840 A.D. born at Khwarizm, a town south of river Oxus in present Uzbekistan.)
(Uzbekistan, a city in Persia which was taken over by the Russians in 1873.)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was an Iranian mathematician, founder of Algebra.
He is best known for introducing the mathematical concept Algorithm, which is so named after his last name.

Abu Bakr Muhammed ibn Zakariya al-Razi auch Ar-Razi, Rhazes (865-925 A.D.)
He born in in Raj, bei Teheran (Iran)
Razi was an Iranian alchemist and a philosopher

Farabi (870-950 A.D. born in a small village Wasij, near Farab in Turkistan)
Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi along with Ibn Sina added much to what the Greeks taught in the theory of Music
His parents were originally of Persian descent. Known as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the son of a general. He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 A.D. to 942 A.D. During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology. He lived through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he acquired great proficiency in various branches of learning and is reported to have been an expert in different languages.
Farabi travelled to many distant lands and studied for some time in Damascus and Egypt, but repeatedly came back to Baghdad, until he visited Saif al-Daula’s court in Halab (Allepo). He became one of the constant companions of the King, and it was here at Halab that his fame spread far and wide. During his early years he was aQadi (Judge), but later on the took up teaching as his profession. During the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time was the caretaker of a garden. He died a bachelor in Damascus in 339 A.H./950 A.D. at the age of 80 years.

Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Khazin (900-971 A.D. born in Khorasan)
Abu Jafar al-Khazin may have worked on both astronomy and number theory or there may have been two mathematicians both working around the same period, one working on astronomy and one on number theory.
As far as this article is concerned we will assume that al-Khazin worked on both topics. There seems no way of being certian which position is correct.

Abul Wafa Muhammad AL-BUZJANI (940-997 A.D. born in Nishapur, Persia)
He flourished as a great mathematician and astronomer.
Abul Wafa’s main contribution lies in several branches of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry.
Ferdosi Faren til den modern Persisk ( 940-1020 A.D. born in Toos ) 329-416 A.H..>
Ferdosi was one of the greatest poets of Persian language. He gave a new life to Irans poetry.
His work is ShahNameh.
ShahNameh includes historical, heroic and fictional stories. Some of his other works like lyric,
fragment, quatrain and elegy are available.

IBN SINA (980-1037 A.D.)
He born in Afschana (bei Buchara; Usbekistan) and died in 1037 in Hamadan (Persien)
He was the most famous physician, philosopher, encyclopaedist, mathematician and astronomer of his time.
His major contribution to medical science was his famous book al-Qanun, known as the “Canon” in the West.
The Qanun fi al-Tibb is an immense encyclo- paedia of medicine extending over a million words

Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi (born in 1207 Balkh, Persia)
The name Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi stands for Love and ecstatic flight into the infinite.
Mevlana is one of the great spiritual masters and poetical geniuses of mankind and was the founder of the Mevlevi Sufi order.
Escaping the Mongol invasion, Rumi and his family travelled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed the pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled in Konya, Anatolia (Turkey), where he succeeded his father in 1231 as professor in religious sciences.
He was introduced into the mystical path by a wandering dervish, Shamsuddin of Tabriz. His love and his bereavement for the death of Shams found their expression in a surge of music, dance and lyric poems, `Divani Samsi Tabrizzi’. Rumi is the author of a huge didactic work, The `Mathnawi’, and discourses, `Fihi ma Fihi’, written to introduce his disciples to metaphysics. If there is `Fihi ma Fihi’, written to introduce his disciples to metaphysics. If there is any general idea underlying Rumi’s poetry, it is the absolute love of God. His influence on thought, literature and all forms of aesthetic expression in the world of Islam cannot be overrated.

Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 A.D. in Nishapur, Persia)
Omar Khayyam’s full name was Ghiyath al-Din Abu’l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami.
Khayyam was an outstanding mathematician and astronomer and, despite the difficulties which he described in this quote, he did write several works includingProblems of Arithmetic, a book on music and one on algebra before he was 25 years old.
In 1070 he moved to Samarkand in Uzbekistan which is one of the oldest cities of Central Asia. There Khayyam was supported by Abu Tahir, a prominent jurist of Samarkand, and this allowed him to write his most famous algebra work,Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra from which we gave the quote above. We shall describe the mathematical contents of this work later in this biography.

Norooz in History of Iran
The first person who re-organized the calendar successfully was Omar Khayyam, the mathematician and astronomer of 5th century HG (11-12th A.D.). He drew a chart for the year and put the start of the year at the moment of Aries entrance to the house of Sun. He made a calendar of 6 months with 31 days, and 6 months with 30 days making a year of 365 days, and suggested the addition of 1 day every four years and also addition of a months every 13,000 years. This is the most complete calendar ever made. Khayyam called it ‘the Jalali Calendar’ because of ‘Jalal’ al-Din Malekshah Saljuqi, his patron king.
This calendar called the ‘Khorshidi'(Sun based) calendar, as oppose to the Arabic ‘Ghamari’ (moon based) calendar.

Although Khayyam was Iranian and he created this calendar based on the pre-Islamic calendar of Zoroastrians, it was not used widely in Iran until the 1925 AD(1304 HS) when Reza Shah Pahlavi ordered it to be used instead of ‘Ghamari’ calendar. In the process of finding names for the months, there are some interesting mistakes happened which are note-worthy.
Norooz, in word, means a new day. It is a new day that starts the year, traditionally in the exact astronomical beginning of the Spring, but it was not always like this!

Abu-Saiid-e-Abul-Kheyr (fl. 11th century) was an Iranian Gnostic.
He was born in Meehneh-a village in the old Khorasan. His father was a pharmacist who was a firm believer in the tenets of sufi mysticism. Abu-Saiid came to know sufi mysticism through the gatherings of sophists to which his father frequented. He was taught theology and literature in his hometown, as well as in the towns of Marve and Sarakhs. He then began practicing asceticism-the cleansing of the soul through self-denial, under the guidance of some great masters and teachers. This metamorphosed him into a complete Gnostic. Thereafter, aside from a short period of preaching in Neyshaboor,he spentmost of his life in his hometown of Meehneh.

Hamid Ghazali (1058- 1128 A.D. born in Khorasan, Iran)
Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi’i al-Ghazali an Iranian Philosopher.
His father died while he was still very young but he had the opportunity of getting education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy and was honoured by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognised as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history.

Abu-Rayhaan-e-Birooni (1099-1177 A.D)
Birooni was an Iranian mathematician, astronomer, historian, and geographer

Shaikh Sadi Shirazi (1194 born in Shiraz)
originally named Muslih-uddin..He remained there for about 30 years, establishing his fame as a great Persian poet and popular writer. He took the name Sadi in honor of his patron Sad b. Zengi. Between 1226 and 1256 he traveled widely, visiting Europe, Ethiopia, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Turkey, Arabia, Iran, and beyond the Indus to Hindustan. In a prose work called The Gulistan (or The Rose Garden) he provided prose stories that touch on practical wisdom and moral questions in an easy and entertaining style.

Shams-od-Din Muhammad Hafez (1320-1397 A.D.)
A Classic Poet from Shiraz Hafez created the best literary and Gnostic concepts in the form of eloquent and pithy lyrics. His concepts surpassed those of other contemporary philosophers, thinkers and scholars.

Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas’ud al-Kashi (about 1380-1429 A.D.in Kashan, Iran)
Kashi was an Iranian mathematician and astronomer
Details of Jamshid al-Kashi’s life and works are better known than many others from this period although details of his life are sketchy.
One of the reasons we is that he dated many of his works with the exact date on which they were completed, another reason is that a number of letters which he wrote to his father have survived and give fascinating information.

Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji (953 – 1029)
Karaji was an Iranian Mathematician
It appears both as al-Karaji and as al-Karkhi but this is not a simple matter of two different transliterations of the same Arabic name.
The significance is that Karaj is a city in Iran and if the mathematician’s name is al-Karaji then certainly his family were from that city. On the other hand Karkh is one of the original suburbs of Baghdad which grew up outside the southern gate of the original city. The name al-Karkhi would indicate that the mathematician came from the suburb of Baghdad.

Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274 A.D. was born in Tus, Khorasan and died in Baghdad)
He was an astronomer who worked at the Il-Khanid Observatory situated in Persia. In his astronomical studies, Al-Tusi was able to obtain an accurate value for the solar procession. In addition to his work on the solar procession, Al-Tusi attempted to come up with an alternative to Ptolemy’s system of epicycles.

30th

Aktuelle Angebote

Posted by Mohammad Forgani under Blog, Rooti:

Flohmarkt und Trödelmarkttermine


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19th
MAY

Highlights of Iran’s history

Posted by Mohammad Forgani under Blog, Rooti:

  • Medes
  • Achämenidisches
  • Seleucids
  • Sassanians
  • Arabs
  • Seljuken und Mongolen
  • Timurids and Turkmen
  • Safavid
  • Afshari
  • Zand
  • Qajar
  • Pahlavi
  • Islamic Republic

Medes Vor-Achämenidisches (von 7,000 v. Chr.)

4,000-2,000 Bronze Age settlements of Tappeh Sialk, Susa, Tappeh Gyian, Tappeh Hasanlu, and Teppeh Hessar.
دودمان یکم امپراتوری مصر
2750 (Babylon) Namensgebung für die wichtigsten Sternbilder des nördlichen Himmels.
 دودمان دوم امپراتوری مصر
1,200 Zenith of Elamite Kingdom. Iron Age. Settlement of Chogha Zanbil in Khuzestan.
۱۲۷۹–۱۲۱۳   رامسس یکم , رامسس دوم
844 First mention of Iranians in Assyrian texts.
728-675 Deioces grosste Medisches Reich. شاهنشاهی ماد
722 Founding of Hagmatana (modern Hamadan).

Achämenidisches Persien (700-330 v. Chr.)

700-675 Achamenes.
675-640 Teispes.
648 Assyrer zerstören elamitisches Susa.
640-600 Cyrus I.(kourosh, kouros)
630-533 Zoroaster und Gründung der Zoroastrier.
612-606 Meder und Babylonier stürzen das Assyrische Reich.
Zerstöung von Nineveh.
600-599 Cambyses I. (Kambiz)
599-530 هخامنشیان
Cyrus II, (kourosh, kouros the Great) der Grosse.
Start of Achämenid Empire کوروش بزرگ
he established a large empire stretching from the Mediterranean in the west to eastern Iran, and from the Black Sea in the north to Arabia.
He was killed in 530 BC during a campaign in the north-eastern part of his empire
فیثاغورس  (۵۶۹–۵۰۰ پیش از میلاد)
530-522 Cambyses II.کمبوجیه دوم
Cambyses erobert Ägypten. تسخیر مصر
522-486 Darius I, der Grosse. Steinrelief am Berg Bisotun. داریوش بزرگ
Wiedererstehen von Susa. Persepolis. Darius erweitert das Reich vom Indus bis zum Nil und Donau. Grabkammer von Darius bei Naqsh-e Rustam.
Revival of Susa. Persepolis. Darius broadens the Empire from the Indus to the Nile and Danube.
Tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rustam.
سقراط
486-464 خشایارشا
464-425 Xerxes I Artaxerxes I. اردشیر یکم
افلاطون
420-404 Darius II. داریوش دوم مصر از خاک ایران جدا شد
Demokrit (ca. 470-400)
404-358 Artaxerxes II اردشیردوم
Aristoteles ارسطو (384-322 v.Chr.)
358-338 اردشیرسوم

مصر باز پس گرفته می‌شود

336-330  Darius III. داریوش سوم

Alexander the Great invades Iran, destroys the uncompleted Persepolis, and takes the Iranian Empire.

در شاهنامهٔ فردوسی داریوش سوم با نام «دارا» شناخته می‌شود
اسکندر پس از تسخیر تخت جمشید هفت سال بر ایران حکومت کرد

302-309 Hormazd II

Seleucids (Arsacids) and

Parthian’s Empire(312 v.Chr. – 224 n. Chr.) : سلوکیان و اشکانیان

312-281 Antiochos I Soter.
281-261 Antiochos II Theos.
261-246 Seleucid II Khallinikos
246-225 Antiochos Hierax Seleucus Soter.
225-223 ارشک
223-186 Antiochos III Megas.
187-175 Seleucus IV Philopator.
175-163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
163-162 Antiochos V Eupator.
161-138 Mithridates I gründet das Parther-Reich. مهرداد یکم
138-124 Phrates II.
124-123 Artabanus II.
123-87 Mithridates II. Höhepukt des Parther-Reiches. مهرداد دوم
87 v.-224 n. Untergang des Parther-Reiches und Aufstieg von Rom.
Julius Cäsar 100 v. Chr. +44 v. Chr  کلئوپاترا (۶۹ تا ۳۰ پیش از میلاد)

Augustus 43 v. Chr. – 14n. Chr.
Tiberius 14-37 n. Chr.
Caligula 37-41
Claudius 41-54

Nero 54-68

Trajan 98 – 117
Hadrian 117 – 138
Marc Aurel 161 – 180

Diocletian 284 – 305

Constantinus 306 – 337

Sassanians (224-651)

224-240 Artaxerxes I اردشیر بابکان  (Ardashir I Son of Papak)
He over throws the Parthians and founds the Sassaniian Empire, his capital Ctesiphon.
240-270 Shapur I شاپور یکم  (Son of Ardashir I)
Er dringt in das Römische Reich ein (252-261), und nimmt Kaiser Valerian gefangen (260).
He invades Roman Empire and capturing the Emperor Valerian in 260.
270-271 Hormuzd I (Son of Shapur I) هرمز یکم
271-274
274-293
Bahram I.(Varhran I ) Son of ShapurI بهرام یکم
Bahram II.(Varhran II ) Son of Shapur I بهرام دوم
283 The Emperor Garus takes Cteisphon, cedes Armenia and north Mesopotamia to Rome.
293 Bahram III (Son of Bahram II) بهرام سوم
293 – 302 Narseh (Son of Shapur I) نرسه
302-309 Hormuzd II. Son of Shapur I. هرمز دوم
309-379 Shapur II. شاپور دوم
363 Shapur III defeats Julian the Apostate in battle, regaining Armenia and north Mesopotamia.
379 Friedensvertrag mit Rom.
379-383 Artaxerxes II. (Ardashir II) اردشیر دوم
(Brother, son or nephew of Shapur II)
383-388 Shapur III. (Son of Shapur II) شاپور سوم
388-399
399-420
420-438
Bahram IV.(Son of Shapur III) بهرام چهارم
Yazdegerd I. (Son of Varhran IV) یزدگرد یکم
Bahram V (Son of Yazdgard I) بهرام گور
438-457 Yazdegerd II. (Son of Bahram V) یزدگرد دوم
410
425
457-459
Alaric erobert Rome.
Weiße Hunnen Überfallen Khorasan.
Hormuzd III. هرمز سوم
459-484
484-488
488-497
Firuz. (Peroz) Son of Yazdgard II پیروز یکم
Balash. (Valkash) Brother of Peroz I بلاش
Kavadh قباد یکم
496-498 Zamasp Son of Peroz I جاماسپ
488-531
531-579
570
Kavad I
انوشیروان
Geburt des Propheten Mohammed.
Yemen unter persischer Kontrolle.
579-590 Hormuzd IV. Son of Khusro I. هرمز چهارم
590 Khosrow I ( Khusro I) خسرو پرویز
590-591 Varhran VI بهرام چوبین
597
590-628
Vistahm Brother-in-law of Hormazd IV ویستهم
Khosrow II. Son of Khusro I
628 Kavad Shirö, a son of Khosrow II, was proclaimed king as Kavad II on the death of his father in the spring of 628 AD.
628-629 Ardashir III Son of Kavad II اردشیر سوم
629-631 Khusro III Nephew of Khusro II خسرو سوم
631-632 Hormazd V Grandson of Khusro IIخسرو چهارم
632 Tod des Propheten Mohammed.
629-631 Khusro III Nephew of Khusro II
632-651 Yazdegerd III, Grandson of Khusro
II. der letzte Sassanidische Herrscher.
Yazdegerd III, the last Sassaniian Monarch.
641 Die Araber besiegen Perser bei
Nahavand. Persien ist formal dem Arabischen Imperium einverleibt.

The Arabs defeat the Iranians at Nahavand. Iran is Formally annexed to the Arab empire.
651 Tod von Yazdegerd III, dessen Familie und Anhänger nach China geflohen sind. یزدگرد سوم
Death of Yazdegerd III, whose family and followers flee to China.

Arabs Frühislamische Zeit (661-750)

Ummayadisches Kalifat (Arabs – Umayyad Caliphate), riegiert von Damaskus
خلافت امویان یا بنی امیه (۴۱ – ۱۳۲ ه. ق. / ۶۶۲ – ۷۵۰ م)

634-644 Umar
661 Mordanschlag auf Imam Ali, von Kharijia Fanatikern, bei Kufa.
650-656 Uthman (Osman)
656-661 Ali کشته شدن به دست ابن ملجم مرادی
661-680 Mu’awiya I مُعاویه بن ابی سُفیان اوّلین خلیفهٔ امویان
680-683 Yazid I son of Mu’awiya I یزید پسر معاویه
یزید بن معاویه در اطراف دمشق به علت برخورد پاره‌سنگی که از منجنیقی پرتاب شده بود و به یک طرف صورت وی برخورد کرده بود مرگ وی را همراه داشت
683-684 Mu’awiya II معاویه پسر یزید
684-685 Marwan I مَروان بن حکم
685-705

Abd-al-Malik

  (عبدالملک بن مروان   ۲۶-۸۶هجری    (خونخوارترین خلیفه این خاندان
عبدالملک ، حجاج بن یوسف ثقفی را به مکه فرستاد، تا مکه را از دست عبدالله بن زبیر درآورد؛ سرانجام حجاج مکه را ویران کرده و عبدالله بن زبیر را کشت

705-715 Al-Walid I ولید پسر عبدالملک
715-717 Suleyman سلیمان پسر عبدالملک
717-720 Umar II عمر بن عبدالعزیز
720-724 Yazid II یزید بن عبدالملک
724-743 Hisham هشام بن عبدالملک
 743-744 Al-Walid II ولید بن یزید
744 Yazid III, Ibrahim یزید بن ولید
744-750 Marwan II مروان بن محمد

مروان ثانی در جنگی که با سپاهیان ابومسلم خراسانی و بنی عباس کرد مغلوب شد و به مصر گریخت و در آنجا به دست یکی از طرفداران بنی عباس کشته شد و سر او را برای سفاح فرستادند.

Arabs – Abbasid Caliphate(750 – 821) خلافت عباسیان

750-754 Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah. سفاح (اولین خلیفهٔ عباسی)
754-775 Al-Mansur, regiert von Baghdad aus. منصور (خلیفه)
775-785 Al-Mahdi مهدی (خلیفه)
785-786 Al-Hadi هادی (خلیفه)
786-809 Harun al-Rashid هارون الرشید
809-813 Al-Amin امین (خلیفه)
813-833 Al-Mamun مَأموُن پسر هارون‌الرشید

خلیفه عباسی مأمون علی بن موسی الرضا را به شهادت رساند

Iranian intermezzo (821 – 1055)
Samanid سلسلهٔ سامانیان     Turkestan سلسله صفاریان 

تاریخ طبری

 حکومتهای کوتاه ایرانی

سلسله طاهریان

حوزه حکومت:  خراسان، مرو
پایتخت:  نیشابور
فرمان روایان:  طاهر،  طلحه پسر طاهر،  عبدالله برادر طلحه،  طاهر پسر عبدالله،  محمد پسر طاهر،
در زمان طاهر در 881 حکومت طاهریان به دست یعقوب لیث صفاری منقرض گردید.
سلسله صفاریان
مدت:  22 سال 870 تا892 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  سیستان، هلمند، هرات، کرمان، فارس
پایتخت:  زرنج
فرمان روایان:  یعقوب لیث،  عمرو لیث
سلسله علویان
مدت:  51 سال 872 تا 893 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  گرگان و طبرستان، ری
پایتخت:  گرگان، ری
فرمان روایان:  حسن بن زید، محمد ابن زید برادر حسن، حسن ابن علی، که از نصر سامانی شکست خورد و حکومت این سلسله پایان یافت.
سلسله سامانیان
مدت: 30 سال 874 تا 903 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  بلخ، سمرقند، فرغانه، هرات، بخارا، خراسان، سیستان
پایتخت:  بخارا
فرمان روایان:  اسماعیل، احمد، نصر دوم، نوح،
سلسله آل زیار
مدت:  115 سال 928 تا 1042 میلادی
حوزه حکومت: مازندران، اصفهان، همدان، حلوان
پایتخت:  گنبد کاوس، ری
فرمان روایان:  مرداویچ پسر زیار، وشمگیر برادر مرداویچ، بیستون پسر وشمگیر، قابوس برادر بیستون،  منوچهر پسر قابوس، انوشیروان پسر منوچهر.
سلسله دیلمیان یا آل بویه
مدت:  123 سال 932 تا 1055 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  ری، گیلان، همدان، فارس، کرمان، خوزستان،
پایتخت:  شیراز، ری
فرمان روایان:  علی بویه دیلمی ملقب یه علی عماد الدوله، حسن بویه دیلمی ملقب به رکن الدوله، احمد بویه دیلمی ملقب به معز الدوله،
 یکی از دروغ های مهم تاریخ،  بزرگ نمودن قدرت خلیفه های بغداد است،  در صورتیکه آنها قدرتی نداشتند،  در تاریخ های دروغی برای کوچک شمردن ایرانیها به عباسیان اهمیت داستانی زیادی دادند.  از زمان شاهنشاهی ساسانیان دیلمیان مرز داران مرز روم بودند،  زیرا دیلمیان مردمی شجاع و در سرزمینی کوهستانی دیلمان زندگی می کردند،  که این کوهستان ها شباهت به کوهستان های مرز روم داشت.  در قلعه ها و پادگان های مرزی روم آثار دیلمی بسیار است،  و در شهر های فعلی که در نزدیکی مرز سابق قرار داشتند،  آثار چهره ای و گفتاری و مرامی دیلمی دیده می شود.  این درست شباهت به کار سلسله هخامنشیان دارد،  که از سواران ماد شرقی برای مرز داری و نگهداری بیابان های غرب و جنوب عراق سود می بردند،  که شباهت به سرزمین آنها داشت،  و به آنها پارت می گفتند،  که پارتی زان های زمان جنگ دوم جهانی از نام آنهاست.
864-892 Nasr I
(رودکی نخستین شاعر زادهٔ ۲۴۴- درگذشتهٔ ۳۲۹ هجری قمری )
892-907 Ismail
907-914 Ahmad
914-942 Nasr II آل بویه ، (۳۲۰–۴۴۷ ق / ۹۳۲–۱۰۵۵ م) از دودمان‌های دیلمیان زیدی
942-954 Nuh I
954-961 Abd al-Malik I
961-976 Mansur I
976-997 Nuh II
997-999 Mansur II
999 Abd al-Malik

Ghaznavid (Khurasan) سلطنت غزنویان

Ghaznavidische Dynasty steigt im Osten auf, fordern die Samaniden heraus.
Ghaznavi dynasty rises in the east, challenging the Samanids.
962-1040 Aufstieg der Buvayhiden nahe Shiraz, regieren Kerman,
Khuzestan, Fars, Isfahan, Rey, Hamadan, und Baghdad (in verschiedenen Zweigen).
Rise of the Buvayhids near Shiraz, ruling Kerman, Khuzestan, Fars, Isfahan, Rey, Hamadan, and Baghdad (in several branches).

سلسله غزنویان
مدت:  224 سال 962 تا 1186
حوزه حکومت:  خراسان، سیستان، افغانستان، کرمان، سرحدات، پنجاب، اصفهان، گیلان و مازندران، کردستان، همدان
پایتخت:  غزنین
فرمان روایان:  سبکتکین، سلطان محمود غزنوی، سلطان محمد، سلطان مسعود
ادامه تاریخ غزنویان فوق العاده در هم و برهم است که انباشته شده از دروغ های تاریخی است.
861-872 Tahiridische Dynasty in Khorasan.
977- 997 سبکتگین
997- 998 Ismail I (اسماعیل)
998- 1030 Mahmud

سلطان محمود غزنوی
بزرگترین جنگ سلطان محمود جنگ سومنات است پرستشگاه سومَنات بزرگترین بتخانه هندوستان در شهر سومنات
بود. جنگ سومنات بیش از ۹۰ هزار نفر از هندیان به قتل رسیدند
معروفترین شاعران دربار او عبارت بودند از: عنصری
بلخی
، فرخی سیستانی، عسجدی مروزی، زینتی،
منشوری سمرقندی، کسائی مروزی و غضائری
رازی
. ابوالقاسم فردوسی

1030-1040 Muhammad محمد
1041- 048 Masoud I مسعود
مسعود به همراه همسرش دستگیر و در قلعه‌ای در شمال غربی هند زندانی شد و پس از یک ماه، کشته شد.
1048-1049 Muhammad (restored)
Maudud مودود
مودود در حالی که در صدد جنگ با سلجوقیان بود، به مرض قولنج درگذشت
1049-1051 Masoud II مسعود دوم
1051-1052  Ali علی
1052- 1059 Abd al-Rashid Toghril Farokhzad فرخزاد
1059-1099 Ibrahim
1099-1115 Masoud III مسعود سوم
1115-1116 Shirzad (شیرزاد)
1116-1117 Arslanshah (ارسلان‌شاه)
1117-1157 Bahramshah بهرام‌ شاه
Ghurid Empire Shansabani Dynasty (Afghanistan)
1157-1160 Khusrowshah (خسروشاه)
1160-1186 Khosrow Malik (خسروملک)
Ferdowsi, Dichter und Verfasser des Shahnameh. (ca. 950-1020)
ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسیFerdowsi, poet of the Shahnameh.
The Shahnameh or The Epic of Kings is one of the definite classics of the world. It tells hero tales of ancient Persia.An important feature of this work is that during the period that Arabic language was known as the main language of science and literature, Ferdowsi used only Persian in his masterpiece. As Ferdowsi himself says “Persian language is revived by this work”.
Avicenna (Ibn Sina ), Philosoph und Arzt.(980-1036)
Avicenna, philosopher and physician.Ibn Sina was born in 980 C.E. in the village of Afshana near Bukhara which today is located in the far south of Russia.
His medical masterpiece was the Canon of Medicine. His other masterpiece, the Book of Healing, is a philosophical treatise dealing with the soul. Avicenna’s interpretation of Aristotle followed to some extent that of the Neoplatonists.
The book Canon and Therapy by the distinguished Persian philosopher and physician Ibn Sina, was thought in many
European schools of medicine till 18th Century.

Seldschuken (1040-1194)

سلجوقیان خوارزمشاهیان غزهای ترکمان

سلجوقیان
مدت:  183 سال 1037 تا 1220 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  تمام سرزمین های ایران بزرگ
فرمان روایان:  طغرل،  الب ارسالان برادر زاده طغرل، جلال الدین ملک شاه پسر اسب ارسلان، ملک شاه،  محمود، برکیارق، سلطان سنجر، محمد، ترکان خاتون،
1038- 1063 Seljukische Türken üerfallen Persien unter Tughril Beg.
Seljuk Turks invade Iran under Tughril Beg. طغرل
1055 Tughril beendet Buvahidische Herrschaft.
Tughril ends Buvahid rule.
1063-1072 Alp Arsalan.  الب ارسالان برادر زاده طغرل
1072-1092 Malik Shah. Höhepunkt der Seljukischen Macht.   پسر اسب ارسلان  جلال‌الدوله ملکشاه
1090-1257 Ismailii Gesellschaft der Assassiner unter den ‘Herrscher des Berges’ terrorisieren den Norden Persiens vom Tal Alamut aus.
Ismailii Society of Assassins under the Master of Mountains terrorize northern Iran from the Valley of Alamut.
1092-1105
1105
Berk Yaruq رکن الدین برکیارق
Malik Shah II جلال‌الدین ملکشاه بن برکیارق
1105-1118 Muhammad I غیاث الدنیا و الدین محمد
1118-1157 سلطان سنجر
Sultan Sandschar. Ende der Seljukischen
Herrschaft in Persien.معزالدین احمد سنجر

خوارزمشاهیان
مدت:  78 سال 1138 تا 1216 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  خیوه و بخارا و خوارزم
فرمان روایان:  قطب الدین محمد، اتسز، ایل، ارسلان، تکش، سلطان محمد
اتابکان آذربایجان
مدت:  89 سال 1136 تا 1225 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  آذربایجان
فرمان روایان:  ایلدگز،  محمد جهان پهلوان پسر ایلدگز، قزل ارسلان برادر محمد
اتابکان آذربایجان مروج و مشوق ادبیات فارسی بوده، نظامی و خاقانی معاصر قزل ارسلان بودند.
اتابکان لرستان یا هزار اسبی
مدت:  191 سال 1148 تا 1339 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  لرستان
فرمان روایان:  ابوطاهر محمد، یوسف شاه،
اتابکان فارس یا سلغریان
مدت:  140 سال 1148 تا 1287 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  فارس
امرا:  سلغر، زنگی، سعد، ابوبکر پسر سعد
1146-1224 Attar, mystischer Poet aus Mantiq at-Tair.
عطارنیشابوری زادهٔ ۵۴۰ در نیشابور – درگذشتهٔ ۶۱۸ هجری قمری مرگ عطار در سال ۶۱۸ هجری قمری به هنگام حملهٔ مغول بود؛ وی در نزدیکی
دروازه شهر به دست سربازان مغول کشته شد.
1140-1202 Nizami, Poet der Makhzan al-Asrar.
ca. 1184-1291 Sa’di, Poet der Bustan and Gulistan. سعدی شیرازی ۶۷۱ – ۵۸۹
شمس تبریزی   جلال‌الدین محمد بلخی معروف به مولانا، مولوی و رومی
1207-1273 Rumi, Poet der Masnavi, und Grossder der Molevi
Regeln der Tanzenden Derwische. حکیم نظامی
نظامی همه عمر خود را در گنجه در زهد و عزلت بسر برد و تنها در سفری کوتاه به دعوت سلطان قزل ارسلان به سی فرسنگی گنجه رفت

Mongolische Ilchane (1206–1355)

1219-1227 Dschingis Khan erobert Persien.
1256-1265 Hulagu Khan. هولاكو
1258 Mongolen plündern Baghdad. Ende des Abbasidischen
Kalifats.
1260 Mongols erobern Aleppo, Hama, Damaskus.
1265-1284 Abaqa.
1284-1291 Arghun.
Indien Khilji Dynastie (1290-1320) Minarett Qutb Minar
1291-1295 Gaikhatu.
1295 Baidu.
1295-1304 Ghazan, Größter der Ilkhans, tritt zum
Moslemischen Glauben über.
Ghazan, greatest of the Ilkhans, a Muslim convert.
1304-1316 Olijaitu.
1317-1335 Abu Sa’id.
Zusammenbruch des Ilkhaniden Staates.
Abu Sa’id. Collapse of the Ilkhanid State.
Hafez,
Dichter aus Shiraz.(1320-1389)
Hafez, Shirazi poet.Indien: Tughluk Dynastie (1320-1413)

Timurids and Turkmen (1380-1500) تیموریان یا گورکانیان

1370-1405 Timur Lenk تیمور لنگ (۷۷۱ – ۸۰۷ ه‍. ق)
Indiean: Sayyid Dynastie (1414-1451)
1380-1405 Timur erobert Persien.
Amtsenthebung der Nestorianischen Kirche.
Suspension of the Nestorian Church.

در ۷۹۰ ه‍.ق. / ۲۷ اوت ۱۳۸۷ میلادی تیمور گورکان اصفهان را فتح کرد. مورخان نوشته‌اند که هفتاد هزار نفر از مردم کشته شدند و از سرهای آن‌ها
مناره‌های زیادی ساخت.

1397 Timur fällt in Indien ein.
1405- 1408 Tod von Timur. Amtsantritt von Shahrokh. Anarchie in Persien.
Death of Timur. Accession of Shahrokh. Anarchy in Iran.
Miranshah (Western Persia)
1409-1411 Khalil (Western Persia) خلیل سلطان (۸۰۷ – ۸۱۲ ه‍. ق)
1409-1447 Shah Rokh Shah شاهرخ (۸۰۷ – ۸۵۰ ه‍. ق)
1411-1492 Jami, Dichter des Haft Awrang. (poet of the Haft Awrang.)
1447-1452 Ulugh Beg. الغ بیگ (۸۵۰ – ۸۵۳ ه‍. ق)
1452-1466 Abu Sa’id der Timuride. سلطان ابوسعید (۸۵۵ – ۸۷۳ ه‍. ق)
1500 Umsturz der Timuriden.

Safavid (1502-1736) صفویان

1484–1524 Ismail I. wechsel Persiens zum
Shiitischen Islam. شاه اسماعیل یکم
Ismail I. Conversion of Iran to Shiite Islam.
سلطنت شاه اسماعیل صفوی،  موسس سلسله صفویه پسر شیخ حیدر
بازار دور,مدرسه هارونیه و بقعه امامزاده هارون در اصفهان
اعلام تشیع به عنوان مذهب رسمی
1524–1576 Tahmasb I. شاه طهماسب یکم (زاده ۳ اسفند ۸۹۲ خورشیدی)
Nikolaus Kopernikus (1473-1545)
Mughal Emperor of IndiaMuhammad Babur (1526-1530)Muhammad Humayun I(1530-1540)
دوران تصرف افغان‌ها 1540-1555Muhammad Humayun II(1555-1556)
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (1556–1605)
1576-1577 Ismail II. شاه اسماعیل دوم


اسماعیل دوم که 25 سال در زندان پدر بود
وی ۱۱ نفر از برادرانش و فرزندانش را کشت و ۵ تن از عموها و برادرزادگان هلاک کرد
اکبرشاه امپراتور هند

1577-1578
1587–1629
فرزند تقریباً نابینای شاه تهماسب بود     شاه محمد خدابنده
Abbas I. Höhepunkt der Safavidischen Macht. شاه عباس بزرگوی سه پسر داشت، یکی را کشت و دو دیگری را نابینا کرد
1598, Abbas moved the Safavid capital to Isfahan from Qazwin.
Abbas I. Capital transferred to Isfahan. Zenith of Safavid power.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

شیخ بهایی , مُلاصَدرا
Indian:Muhammad Jahangir (1605–1627)
1629-1642 Safi I.   شاه صفی دوم  – شاه سلیمان
Indian:Shah Jahan (1627–1657)


پسر شاه صفی که در سن ده سالگی به سلطنت رسید
حسین خوانساری، علامه مجلسی، جمال الدین محمد خوانساری، ملا محسن فیض کاشانی

1642–1666 Abbas II. شاه عباس دوم
Indien:Shah Shuja (1657–1658)
1666-1694 Suleiman I.شاه سلیمان

پسر شاه عباس دوم که جوانی بی کفایت و خونخوار و ضعیف العـقـل و هرزه و عیاش بود
بعلت بیماری نقرس و یا شرب زیاد در اصفهان درگذشت

Leibniz (1646-1716)
Indien:Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658–1707)

1694–1722 Hossein. شاه سلطان حسین 

پسر شاه سلیمان، وی نیز مردی بی کفایت و اوهام پرست و ضعیف اراده بود
شمار همسران دائم شاه حسین را حدود ۱۰۰۰ نفر از بلاد و اقوام مختلف کشور به دستور اشرف افغان در ۱۱۳۹گردن او در زندان زده شد. بدن او در قم و سر او در همدان دفن شده است
Newton (1643-1727)
محمدباقر مجلسی

1722 Safavid
Afghanen erobern Isfahan.
Afghans capture Isfahan.
1722-1732 Tahmasb II.  شاه تهماسب دوم 

پسر شاه سلطان حسین،  که دست نشانده نادر قلی بود

1724 Mahmud erobert Shiraz. Massaker an den Safavidischen Princen. محمود افغان
Mahmud takes Shiraz. Massacre of Safavid princes.
1732-1736 Abbas III. Sturz der Safaviden.   شاه عباس سوم

کودک هشت ماهه طهماسب،  آخرین پادشاه اسمی صفویه که نادر به نام او حکومت می کرد.     

Das moderne Persien zum heutigen Iran (1729 – 1979)

حکومت افشاریه
مدت:  61 سال 1736 تا 1794 میلادی
حوزه حکومت:  ایران، قفقاز، ترکمنستان، افغانستان
پایتخت:  مشهد
پادشاهان:  نادر شاه، عادل شاه، شاهرخ
 
1736-1747 Afshari Nadir Shah Afshar  نادر شاه
Afsharidische Dynasty von Nader Quli begröndet.
In 1738-39 Nadir invaded Mughal India. He was brilliantly successful, taking and sacking Delhi and Lahore and carrying off vast treasure, including the Koh-i-noor diamond and the Peacock Throne.
1748-1750 Adil. Shahrokh der Afsharide.  عادل شاه
 1747-1748 شاهرخ
 1750-1779 Zand Karim Khan begründet Zand Dynasty.
Karim Khan founds Zand dynasty.

حکومت زندیه
مدت: 29 سال 1750 تا 1779 میلادی
1779-1785 Ali Murad.
1785-1789 Ja’far.Lutf
Ampére (1775-1836)

1789-1794
 Ali Khan.
Ohm (1789-1849)
1795-1797 Mohammed Qajar stürzt die Zand
Dynasty und begründet die Qajaren Dynasty.
founder of the Qajar dynasty. He was emasculated by family enemies at the age of five.
Faraday (1791-1867)
1797-1834 Fath Ali Shah.
nephew of Aga Muhammad Shah.
The shah’s attempt to reconqür Georgia proved disastrous, and the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and the Treaty of Turkmanchai (1828) deprived Persia of the Caucasus and color=#000080 marked a downward trend in Persian power.
1834-1848 Mohammed Shah.
Fotografie(1837)

Revolution in Frankreich(1848)
Maxwell (1831-1879)
1848-1896 Naser ad-Din Shah.
He traveled extensively in Europe and brought back many Western ideas, some of which he applied to the reorganization of the government.
Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894)
Film(1895)
Erfindung des Automobile (1895)
1896-1907 Muzaffar ad-Din Shah son of Nasir ad-Din.
A weak ruler, he borrowed money from Russia and failed to oppose the encroachments of Russia and Great Britain on Persian sovereignty.
He died soon after signing the long-awaited liberal constitution. He was succeeded by Muhammad Ali.
1906
1909-1923
Mohammed Ali Shah.
Sultan Ahmad, The last Qajar monarch was a venal and weak king
Einsteins spezielle/allgemeine
Relativitätstheorie 1905-1915
1925-1941 Reza Khan als Reza Shah Begründer der Pahlevi Dynasty.
Premier Minister von Ahmad Shah.
proclamation of Reza Khan as Reza Shah prime minister of Mohammed Ali Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty.
Under his rule the Trans-Iranian RR was built, the Univ. of Tehran was established, and industrialization was stepped-up.
Hubble 1929
Niels Bohr (Nobelpreis 1922)

1941-1979 Mohammed Reza Shah son of Reza Shah Pahlevi.
Otto Hahn (Nobelpreis 1944)
Max Planck
Max Born (Nobelpreis 1954)
1979 – Persien Islamic  Republic
1979 Religiöser Aufruhr geführt von Ayatollah Khomeini, protestiert gegen die sogenannte ‘Weiße Revolution’.
Islamic Republic under Constitution of 1979, with Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini

Literatur :
Zwischen Persepolis und Firuzabad
Gräber, Paläste und Felsenreliefs im alten Persien
Persische Mythen
Die alten Persischen Mythen
Geschichte von Zoroaster

 

 

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